Myocardial infarction can occur in any situation — at work, at home, on vacation. According to WHO, almost 10% of cases affect young people under 45 years old, 60% of patients die in the first hour from a heart attack. Therefore, the earlier assistance was provided, the:
- more likely to survive in a sick person,
- less risk of complications
- more narrowed coronary artery and heart muscle can recover from necrosis.
For the treatment of a heart attack, pharmacological and surgical methods are used. Drugs for myocardial infarction should be started immediately after the onset of the first symptoms (weakness, severe chest pain, shortness of breath, fainting). Further, preventive and maintenance treatment is prescribed.
What is a myocardial infarction?
A heart attack is a necrosis of the heart muscle resulting from ischemia caused by the closure of a vessel supplying blood to the heart. The most common cause of a heart attack is coronary heart disease, 90% of which is caused by atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries. It occurs more frequently in men than in women.
In 90% of patients, the main symptom is persistent pain behind the sternum, which appears suddenly and can spread to the arms, neck, jaw, back, or abdomen. It usually takes no more than 20 minutes. The victim has a feeling of tightness in the chest. Unable to show the location of the pain, he puts his whole hand on his chest. There is shortness of breath, anxiety, fear of death. The face becomes pale, cold, with cold sweat, nausea and vomiting, and an irregular pulse.
In 10% of patients (especially those suffering from diabetes) myocardial infarction occurs without pain symptoms. In women, the most common symptoms are those of a cold, hormonal changes, or fatigue. Shortness of breath, accompanied by coughing and expectoration of sputum, malaise, weakness, dizziness, increased heart rate are not always identified with cardiac problems. Possible peripheral cyanosis (blue skin on the fingertips, lobes, lips). Women are much more likely than men to ignore these symptoms and see a doctor too late.
How can you help someone who has had a heart attack?
If the patient is conscious, it is necessary to help him take a comfortable position. He should sit leaning against a chair or wall, or lie down. The main thing is that the torso should be slightly elevated, as this puts less stress on the heart. Any movement and excitement should be limited, because physical activity and stress increase the heart’s need for oxygen. This can lead to an increase in necrotic foci. It is also very important to ease the patient’s breathing, loosen the belt, remove the tie, unbutton the shirt collar. Fresh air must be provided.
In any case, myocardial infarction requires urgent treatment. One of the methods is angioplasty. The doctor inserts a long and thin tube (catheter) into the radial or groin artery. Then, using fluid at the appropriate pressure, he expands the balloon at the end of the catheter. This allows you to restore the artery and normal blood flow in the vessels. A small mesh tube called a stent is placed at the site where the blockage is removed to prevent the hole from closing, and an angina medicine is given. It is necessary to prevent re-narrowing of the arterial constriction.
In addition to invasive treatment, pharmacotherapy is used:
- anticoagulants to prevent the formation of blood clots and the development of blood flow disorders;
- thrombolytics to dissolve blood clots;
- antiplatelet drugs for heart attack , such as clopidogrel, prevent the formation of new blood clots and prevent their number from increasing;
- nitroglycerin is used to dilate blood vessels;
- β-blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors can not only lower blood pressure, but also relax the heart muscle;
- statins are drugs whose main effect is to suppress the production of cholesterol and stabilize the condition with.
- morphine , which is prescribed in the most critical cases, reduces pain.
Treatment of myocardial infarction begins with the arrival of an ambulance team. Medicines can be administered only when the patient is conscious and expresses clearly and accurately.
Immediately after a heart attack, the patient is administered prescribed drugs for myocardial infarction :
- 300 mg acetylsalicylic acid orally. Further, each person who has had a heart attack should take medicines after a heart attack (acetylsalicylic acid) in tablets at a dose of 75-150 mg daily for the rest of his life . This drug normalizes the processes of blood coagulation. It is also prescribed before a planned heart operation. Since acetylsalicylic acid can aggravate the symptoms of stomach ulcers, medications that inhibit stomach acid should be taken. Aspirin cardio is not prescribed for allergies and hypersensitivity to acetylsalicylic acid;
- 300 mg (in some cases 600 mg) clopidogrel orally. Then, any person who has had a heart attack should take post-MI drugs with the active ingredient clopidogrel 75 mg daily for 12 months. It is also used in place of acetylsalicylic acid for some contraindications;
- 40–70 IU/kg of heparin is given intravenously ;
- 0.4–0.8 mg sublingual nitroglycerin for additional symptoms causing chest pain. It is important that nitroglycerin is not used in patients with suspected right ventricular infarction (diagnosed by a physician based on ECG findings). For low blood pressure, nitroglycerin can lower it even more.
Over-the-counter painkillers such as paracetamol, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, diclofenac, celecoxib are contraindicated in case of a heart attack. They can mask the symptoms of a heart attack, adversely affect blood clotting, and cause blood clots.
What pills for a heart attack should be taken after the end of inpatient treatment?
A patient who has had a heart attack due to myocardial infarction is at a high risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, as well as death due to them. Reducing the risk of a relapse is possible with strict treatment and secondary prevention. It consists in strict adherence to the principles of a healthy lifestyle, reducing all risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and taking specialized medications in tablets. It is necessary to increase the level of activity, quit smoking, limit the use of alcoholic beverages.
List of medicines medicines for myocardial infarction
In addition, clopidogrel or another drug that inhibits platelet aggregation is recommended for 12 months . Newer drugs with a similar mechanism of action are also effective, such as:
But Brilinta showed the greatest effectiveness . Its active substance — ticagrelor — is rapidly absorbed and after 1.5 hours reaches its maximum concentration in the blood serum, preventing the formation of blood clots, the occurrence of myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke.
You can buy Brilinta for 1 year for rehabilitation after myocardial infarction and prevention of recurrent heart attacks from the official representative of the Swedish pharmaceutical company AstraZeneca. Its branches, where a doctor’s consultation is provided, operate in Kharkov, Vinnitsa and Chernigov. Orders are delivered by postal services throughout Ukraine. When buying 3, 5, 10 packs, special conditions apply. Order Brilinta and you will personally see its safety and effectiveness.